It is argued that the traditional rule of past consideration is vague, unclear and uncertain without any real explanation and solid justification, and that is evidenced by the fact that courts, drafters of the Restatement (Second) of Contracts, and legal scholars have all struggled with the notion of that rule trying to find whether
In this research paper I examined the dictum of Lord Halsbury on Salmon V Salmon  A.C.22 that outlined very fundamental concept of corporate law in the U.K. I assessed the Limited Liability Company (LLC), one-man companies, and group of companies.
The research paper concentrated on shipowners’ liability. In this paper I categorized shipowners’ obligations under three distinct groups. Shipowners’ obligations before commencement of the voyage, shipowners’ obligations during the voyage, and their obligations after the ships reach their final destinations.